What's the purpose of this trial?
Severe aplastic anemia (SAA), and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
(PNH) cause serious blood problems. Stem cell transplants using bone marrow or blood plus chemotherapy can help. Researchers want to see if using peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) rather than bone marrow cells works too. PBSCs are easier to collect and have more cells that help transplants.
To see how safely and effectively SAA, MDS and PNH are treated using peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cells from a family member plus chemotherapy.
Recipients ages 4-55 with SAA, MDS or PNH and their relative donors ages 4-75
Recipients will have:
* Blood, urine, heart, and lung tests
* Bone marrow sample
Recipients will need a caregiver for several months. They may make fertility plans and a power of attorney.
Donors will have blood and tissue tests, then injections to boost stem cells for 5-7 days.
Donors will have blood collected from a tube in an arm or leg vein. A machine will separate stem cells and maybe white blood cells. The rest of the blood will be returned into the other arm or leg.
In the hospital for about 1 month, recipients will have:
* Central line inserted in the neck or chest
* Medicines for side effects
* Chemotherapy over 8 days and radiation 1 time
* Stem cell transplant over 4 hours
Up to 6 months after transplant, recipients will stay near NIH for weekly physical exams and blood tests.
At day 180, recipients will go home. They will have tests at their doctor s office and NIH several times over 5 years.
This trial is currently open and accepting patients.
What will happen during the trial?
You may be able to join this trial if you:
The following criteria is a partial list of reasons why patients may be
eligible to participate in this clinical trial. Further evaluation with a medical professional is
* INCLUSION CRITERIA - RECIPIENT:
* Diagnosed with severe aplastic anemia with bone marrow cellularity \<30% (excluding lymphocytes) associated with RBC or platelet transfusion dependence and/or neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count less than or equal to 1000 cells/ microL or for patients receiving granulocyte transfusions, absolute neutrophil count less than or equal to 1000 cells/ uL before beginning granulocyte transfusions).
--History of severe aplastic anemia transformed to MDS. that meet the following criteria: a) International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) risk category of INT-1 or greater, b) \<5% myeloblasts and \<30% of cellularity in the bone marrow on screening morphologic analysis.
--PNH that is either refractory to treatment with eculizumab/ravulizumab or occurs in patients who don t have access to treatment with eculizumab associated with either a) life- threatening thrombosis and/or b) cytopenia associated with transfusion dependence and/or c) recurrent and debilitating hemolytic crisis.
* Subjects with severe aplastic anemia, hypoplastic MDS or PNH with associated bone marrow failure syndromes who have intolerance of or failure to respond to standard immunosuppressive therapy.
* Availability of at least one HLA- haploidentical (i.e. \> 5/10 and less than or equal to 8/10 HLA match) related donor (HLAA,
B, C, DR, and DQ loci) who is available to donate stem cell graft (6-75 years old).
* The patient does not have any HLA antibodies detectable against any of the mismatched HLA alleles expressed by the haplo-donor.
* Ages 4-55 years inclusive.
* Ability to comprehend the investigational nature of the study and provide informed consent. The procedure will be explained to subjects aged 4-17 years with formal consent being obtained from parents or legal guardian.
EXCLUSION CRITERIA - RECIPIENT (ANY OF THE FOLLOWING):
* Availability of an HLA identical or 9/10 HLA matched (HLA A, B, C, DR, and DQ loci) -relative to serve as a stem cell donor.
* The patient is deemed to be a candidate for a 10/10 HLA matched unrelated stem cell transplant (availability of a donor and resources required for such a transplant).
* The patient is eligible for transplantation using an ex vivo expanded cord blood unit on NHLBI protocol 17-H-0091
* ECOG performance status of 2 or more.
* Major anticipated illness or organ failure incompatible with survival from transplant.
* Current pregnancy, or unwillingness to take oral contraceptives or use a barrier method of birth control or practice abstinence to refrain from pregnancy, if of childbearing potential for one year.
* HIV positive.
* Diagnosis of Fanconi s anemia (by chromosome breakage study).
* Diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO) \<40% using DLCO corrected for Hgb or lung volumes (patients under the age of 10 may be excluded from this criterion if they have difficulty performing the test correctly and thus are unable to have their DLCO assessed).
* Left ventricular ejection fraction \<40% (evaluated by ECHO)
* Transaminases \> 5x upper limit of normal.
* Direct bilirubin \>3 mg/dl.
* Creatinine clearance \< 50 cc/min/BSAm2 by 24-hour urine collection adjusted by body surface area.
* Serum creatinine \> 2.5 mg/dl
* Presence of an active infection not adequately responding to appropriate therapy.
* History of a malignant disease liable to relapse or progress within 5 years.
INCLUSION CRITERIA - DONOR:
Donor deemed suitable and eligible, and willing to donate, per clinical evaluations who are additionally willing to donate blood for research. Donors will be evaluated in accordance with existing Standard NIH Policies and Procedures for determination of eligibility and suitability for clinical donation. Note that participation in this study is offered to all donors, but is not required for a donor to make a stem cell donation, so it is possible that not all donors will enroll onto this study.
EXCLUSION CRITERIA - RELATED DONOR:
Additional Trial Information
Enrollment: 56 patients (estimated)
Trial Sponsor: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
SparkCures Identifier: 1584