Phase II Study of Horse Anti-Thymocyte Globulin (hATG), Cyclosporine, Methylprednisolone, and GCSF (Filgrastim or Pegfilgrastim) in Patients With Aplastic Anemia (AA), or Low/Int-1 Risk Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS)

What's the purpose of this trial?

This phase II trial studies methylprednisolone, horse anti-thymocyte globulin, cyclosporine, filgrastim, and/or pegfilgrastim or pegfilgrastim biosimilar in treating patients with aplastic anemia or low or intermediate-risk myelodysplastic syndrome. Horse anti-thymocyte globulin is made from horse blood and targets immune cells known as T-lymphocytes. Since T-lymphocytes are believed to be involved in causing low blood counts in aplastic anemia and in some cases of myelodysplastic syndromes, killing these cells may help treat the disease. Methylprednisolone and cyclosporine work to suppress immune cells called lymphocytes. This may help to improve low blood counts in aplastic anemia and myelodysplastic syndromes. Filgrastim and pegfilgrastim are designed to cause white blood cells to grow. This may help to fight infections and help improve the white blood cell count. Giving methylprednisolone and horse anti-thymocyte globulin together with cyclosporine, filgrastim, and/or pegfilgrastim may be an effective treatment for patients with aplastic anemia or myelodysplastic syndrome.

This trial is currently open and accepting patients.

What will happen during the trial?

You may be able to join this trial if you:

The following criteria is a partial list of reasons why patients may be eligible to participate in this clinical trial. Further evaluation with a medical professional is required.

Inclusion Criteria:

* Patients with the diagnosis of MDS (low, int-1 by International Prognostic Scoring System \[IPSS\], or hypocellular) who are either previously treated or untreated are eligible for this trial
* Patients with the diagnosis of aplastic anemia who are either previously treated or untreated are eligible if they are not currently candidates for an allogeneic stem cell transplant
* Patients must have been off of cytotoxic, immunosuppressive (except steroids), or targeted therapy for at least 2 weeks prior to entering this study, and have recovered from the toxic effects of that therapy to grade 1 or less
* Bilirubin \< 2 mg/dL
* Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) \< 3 x upper limit of normal (ULN)
* Creatinine \< 2.5 x ULN
* Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of =\< 2
* Women of child-bearing potential and men must agree to use adequate contraception (hormonal or barrier method of birth control; abstinence) prior to study entry and for the duration of study participation; should a woman become pregnant or suspect she is pregnant while participating in this study, she should inform her treating physician immediately
* A negative urine pregnancy test is required within 1 week for all women of childbearing potential prior to enrolling on this trial
* Patient must have the ability to understand the requirements of the study and signed informed consent; a signed informed consent by the patient or his legally authorized representative is required prior to their enrollment on the protocol
* Patients should have an indication for therapy for their disease such as transfusion dependence or morbidity associated with their cytopenia(s) such as bleeding, severe fatigue, or frequent/multiple infections (e.g. neutropenia)

Exclusion Criteria:

* Pregnant women are excluded from this study; because there is an unknown but potential risk for adverse events in nursing infants secondary to treatment of the mother with the study agents, breastfeeding should be discontinued if the mother is treated on this study
* Known human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection
* Uncontrolled intercurrent illness including, but not limited to, ongoing or active infection, symptomatic congestive heart failure, unstable angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmia, or psychiatric illness/social situations that would limit compliance with study requirements
* Patient with documented hypersensitivity to any of the component medications

Additional Trial Information

Phase 2

Enrollment: 140 patients (estimated)

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MD Anderson Cancer Center The University of Texas

Houston, TX

Open and Accepting
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