A Phase I Study of Nivolumab in Combination With Ipilimumab for the Treatment of Patients With High Risk or Refractory/Relapsed Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndrome Following Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation

What's the purpose of this trial?

This phase Ib trial studies the side effects and best dose of nivolumab and ipilimumab after donor stem cell transplant in treating patients with high risk acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome that does not respond to treatment or has come back. Immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies, such as nivolumab and ipilimumab, may help the body's immune system attack the cancer, and may interfere with the ability of tumor cells to grow and spread.

This trial is currently open and accepting patients.

What will happen during the trial?

You may be able to join this trial if you:

The following criteria is a partial list of reasons why patients may be eligible to participate in this clinical trial. Further evaluation with a medical professional is required.

Inclusion Criteria:

* Patients with evidence of relapsed or refractory AML or MDS following allogeneic stem cell transplantation
* Patients must have received preparative regimens to include either busulfan- or melphalan-based regimens
* Patient must have achieved myeloid engraftment as defined by an absolute neutrophil count \>= 500 micro/L on 3 consecutive days
* Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status =\< 2
* Total bilirubin =\< 2 times upper limit of normal (x ULN) (=\< 3 x ULN if considered to be due to Gilbert's syndrome)
* Aspartate aminotransferase or alanine aminotransferase =\< 2.5 x ULN
* Serum creatinine =\< 2 x ULN or glomerular filtration rate (GFR) \>= 50
* Patients must provide written informed consent
* The interval from the infusion of stem cells to time of initiation of nivolumab or ipilimumab will be at least 6 weeks (42 days)
* Females must be surgically or biologically sterile or postmenopausal (amenorrheic for at least 12 months) or if of childbearing potential, must have a negative serum or urine pregnancy test within 72 hours before the start of the treatment
* Women of childbearing potential must agree to use an adequate method of contraception during the study and until 3 months after the last treatment. Males must be surgically or biologically sterile or agree to use an adequate method of contraception during the study until 3 months after the last treatment

Exclusion Criteria:

* Patients with known allergy or hypersensitivity to nivolumab or ipilimumab or any of their components
* Patients with acute GVHD \> grade 2 at any time during the post-transplant course
* Patients with a known history of severe interstitial lung disease or severe pneumonitis or active pneumonitis that is uncontrolled in the opinion of the treating physician
* Patients with a known history of any of the following autoimmune diseases are excluded:

* Patients with a history of inflammatory bowel disease (including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis)
* Patients with a history of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic progressive sclerosis (scleroderma), systemic lupus erythematosus, autoimmune vasculitis (e.g., Wegener's granulomatosis)
* Patients with solid organ allografts (such as renal transplant) are excluded
* Ongoing immunosuppressive therapy for the treatment of GVHD. Patients receiving GVHD prophylaxis will be allowed on this study
* Patients with symptomatic central nervous system (CNS) leukemia at the time of evaluation or patients with poorly controlled CNS leukemia
* Active and uncontrolled disease/(active uncontrolled infection, uncontrolled hypertension despite adequate medical therapy, active and uncontrolled congestive heart failure New York Heart Association \[NYHA\] class III/IV, clinically significant and uncontrolled arrhythmia) as judged by the treating physician
* Patients with known human immunodeficiency virus seropositivity will be excluded
* Known to be positive for hepatitis B by surface antigen expression. Known to have active hepatitis C infection (positive by polymerase chain reaction or on antiviral therapy for hepatitis C within the last 6 months)
* Any other medical, psychological, or social condition that may interfere with study participation or compliance, or compromise patient safety in the opinion of the investigator
* Patients unwilling or unable to comply with the protocol
* Pregnant or breastfeeding

Additional Trial Information

Phase 1

Enrollment: 55 patients (estimated)

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Trial Locations

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MD Anderson Cancer Center The University of Texas

Houston, TX

Open and Accepting
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